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Application of CRISPR Inhibitors in Molecular Medicine


The technology of CRISPR currently shows a great level of application in the pharmaceutical sector. This post focuses on the mechanism of CRISPR inhibition and it's application in the field of molecular medicine. 

CRISPR Inhibition

CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) are the type of sequences of DNA which are generally found in prokaryotic living organisms. The CRISPR technology acts as an effective method to genetically modify the sequence of DNA which could result in the significant changes in the normal functioning of a gene. 




The Cas9 is a type of enzyme whose major function is to cleave the viral DNA molecules which could harm the bacterial cells. Therefore, they act as an immunological agent in order to protect bacteria from the invasion of the viruses. Naturally, the bacteria catch the snippets of viral DNA which could be used to create CRISPR array that is responsible for making the bacteria remember the virus. However, in the laboratory, in the CRISPR-Cas9 system, small strands of RNA are created manually with a short sequence which is complementary to the specific target sequence present in a DNA present in a genome. The RNA first binds to the Cas9 enzyme. However, later it recognizes the target DNA sequence which is then cleaved by the Cas9 enzyme. 

Since CRISPR-Cas9 could create mutations in the genome of the targeted DNA, it could affect the final protein product of the gene and removing symptoms of a particular disease [3]. It could be used to reverse the genetic disorders by cuttingdisease-causingg genes.  The CRISPR could be delivered to the cells wither by using viral vectors or lipid nanoparticle. It should be noted that the CRISPR-Cas9 technology could also be used as a tool in drug discovery by searching genes and proteins that are relevant to the disease.

In order to fight the immune system, based on the type of CRISPR-Cas system the viruses are dealing with, they encode two different kinds of proteins that causes a significant destruction of the CRISPR-Cas adaptive systems namely Class I anti-CRISPR and Class II anti-CRISPR in order to prevent the degradation of their viral genome from the attack of the CRISPR-Cas systems [2]. 

Role of CRISPR Inhibitors in Molecular Medicine

After cleaving the DNA in the normal CRISPR process at specific sites, the researchers could use the DNA repair mechanism of the cell to insert or remove certain pieces of DNA or could replace the existing DNA segment with a custom genome sequence. In short, CRISPR-Cas9 could prove to be an effective gene editing tool [1].

Since the CRISPR system is responsible for guiding and cleaving certain sequences of DNA, it holds a great significance in the process of genetic engineering or gene editing. One of the major applications of the CRISPR-Cas technology is in the process of gene editing which could hold a number of applications in the learning of various genetic and viral diseases due to their capability of favouring the process of DNA cleavage. Apart from that, the gene-editing process could also be used in discovering a number of treatments for cancer. Since the CRISPR-Cas system does not interfere with the intracellular mechanisms, it could prove to be one of the most effective methods to eliminate or deactivate a particular gene [7]. However, when a gene editing process goes wrong, it becomes quite difficult to control the process which becomes quite difficult in case of CRISPR-Cas systems. The anti CRISPR-Cas inhibitors could control the activities of the gene editing procedure. Therefore, the anti CRISPR-Cas proteins could play a significant role in improving the process of gene editing by providing control over the CRISPR-Cas systems which could prove to be an effective tool in the field of molecular medicine.

Conclusion 

The anti CRISPR-Cas proteins could also counteract with the repression and expression of the gene which has been mediated with the help of CRISPR technology and therefore could act as a widely applicable tool for the regulation of genes present in the eukaryotic cells [4]. This may be helpful to the researchers since molecular medicine consists of a complex biological process which needs to be switched on and off in order to study the exact mechanism of a disease system. Therefore, the anti CRISPR-Cas proteins could play a significant role in modifying and improving the current gene editing procedure which directly affects the technologies applied in the current and future fields of diagnostics and treatments for a number of fatal diseases.

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