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Environmental Biotechnology

Environmental biotechnology is the application of various techniques of biology in order to conserve environment. An environment has always played an essential role in shaping up of an individual whether it is physical or mental health. Thus, it's protection and maintainance is a mandatory duty of every individual. The application of biotechnology in environment has led to the development of environmental biosensors as well as biological waste treatment techniques. It has always tried to provide essential methodologies to improve the quality of an environment.

Environmental Biotechnology
Source: Canva

The application of biotechnology are most prominently in environmental monitoring and waste treatment which are increasing tremendously. Living organisms are manipulated to offer a large range of methodologies that can help in the protection of environment.

Environmental monitoring

It includes the set of methodologies that detects alterations in the parameters of environment which in turn indicates the level of pollutants in the environment. Living organisms have always proved to be an indicator of the harmful levels of pollutants present in the environment. For e.g. the overgrowth of algae have proved to be an indicator of water pollution.
Biotechnology has always focused on developing the strategies for having a record about the ongoing  levels of pollutants in order to aware the scientists to take the necessary precautions.

The concentration of certain compounds from any of the components of environment such as organic pollutants and toxic compounds can be detected by using biosensors. Biosensors are the type of sensors that uses a biological element to detect the concentration of a particular parameter. A biological recognition element can be an antibody, a nucleic acid or a microorganism which can be manipulated by usimg genetic engineering in a biosensor to produce response a against particular pollutant which is amplified and detected.

Waste treatment

Wastes are unusable products generated by living organisms that can degrade or stay in the environment for a period of time.The treatment of waste is one of the most significant method in protecting the deterioration of an environment. Biotechnology includes various methods such as bioremediation, phytoremediation, biofiltration, etc.

Bioremediation 

Bioremediation is the treatment (remedy) of wastes by microorganisms. The mechanism uses certain metabolic pathways of the microorganisms to breakdown wastes into a more degradable or less harmful product.

Phytoremediation

Phytoremediation is the use of plants to treat wastes. It involves the taking up of wastes from a plant which gets converted in a particular form and gets stored in the plants.Thus, microorganisms or plants can be genetically modified to breakdown certain types of wastes or they can be used

Biofiltration

Biofiltration involves the use of microbes in membrane to breakdown organic matter of the waste. The organic matter supplies food for the microbes in the membrane and necessary aeration is supplied.

Thus, biotechnology plays a vital role in protecting as well as keeping a record on the parameters of a particular environment. 

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