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Types of Soil Bioremediation

The bioremediation process of treating wastes by using living organisms which include various microbes but most commonly bacteria which includes Pseudomonas putida, nitrifying as well as denitrifying bacteria, etc. The target waste can consist of organic as well as inorganic matter. The oil spills, volatile organic compounds, etc can be remediated by using suitable microorganisms. Bioremediation can be used to treat contaminated soil, wastewater as well as polluted air.


Types of bioremediation

The knowledge about the types of bioremediation is quite essential to be known. If bioremediation is performed in a soil media then it is called soil bioremediation which is the most common one whereas when it is carried out in an air or water media then it is called air or water bioremediation.

The types of soil bioremediation are classified based on the soil environment in which microbes perform the process of remediation, the following are the types:

1. In situ bioremediation

In situ bioremediation is the process in which the contaminants are treated in their natural surrounding. In this type of methodology the soil conditions are the same as the natural environmental state. An additional amount of air or pre grown culture maybe added in order to increase the growth activity of microbes. Basically it is the process of bioremediation which is carried in normal soil.

Bioaugmentation 
Bioaugmentation is the method of putting already grown microbes into the location of wherein the target waste is present. The microbes are first grown in a lab with optimum conditions to promote their growth. The pre grown microbes are then added to the place of bioremediation wherein they multiply over a period of time. Thus increasing the efficiency of bioremediation.

Bioventing
It involves supplying air to the microbes that carry out remediation. An increase in the supply of oxygen causes the process of bioremediation of wastes by aerobic microorganisms faster. The oxygen is supplied to the soil by means of air injection.

2. Ex situ bioremediation 

The process of bioremediation in which the standard conditions are controlled externally is referred to as ex situ bioremediation. Large bioreactors wherein the nutrients, air supply, etc to the microbes are controlled can be used to carry out ex situ bioremediation.

Ex situ bioremediation involves the process of removing contaminants from their original site to a particular place wherein bioremediation can be performed. Thus, the depth at which the pollutant is present plays a vital role in predicting the efficiency of ex situ bioremediation. It should be noted that ex situ bioremediation is considered only if in situ treatment does not prove to be effective as it involves more implementation of tools and equipments.


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