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All You Need to Know About the Organ-on-a-chip

Organ-on-a-chip is a system which consists of cell culture located in a 3D structure that aids its support, growth as well as proper functioning. Therefore, this device is responsible for mimicking the functions of a particular organ. Yes, you heard it right! A chip which could mimic activities of an organ.

Working The combination of fluid physics with the 3D compartmentalization of cells plays a significant role in the working of an organ-on-a-chip device.

The microfluidic study focuses on the behaviour of the fluids as well as precisely control and manipulates them through microchannels. Therefore, the principle of microfluidics is applied in order to provide a better environment with the cells which consist of more controlled parameters.

The cells are grown inside the microfluidic chamber in order to create the desired tissue or organs. In order to promote the optimal growth of cells, the chamber should consist of proper nutrients, ambient temperature, pH other parameters. Also, t…
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Herpes Simplex Virus

What is Herpes? Herpes is a pathogenic virus which results in the formation of sores on the region near the mouth or genital area of the affected individuals.

Symptoms The affected individuals possess sores that are mostly visible on body parts which include vulva, cervix, penis, anus, scrotum, inner thighs, lips, mouth and throat as a result of which herpes could be of types viz. genital herpes and oral herpes.
Types The herpes simplex virus (HSV) could be divided into types namely type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2).
The HSV-1 most commonly causes oral herpes and therefore could be commonly spread when one comes in contact with the mouth region of the affected individual. The common symptoms associated with HSV-1 include cold sores on lips or near the mouth region. It could be prevented by avoiding kissing or sharing utensils with the affected individuals. Around 47.8% of Americans that lie within the age group of 14-49 years are affected by the HSV-1 strains [1]. However, it should …

Application of CRISPR Inhibitors in Molecular Medicine

The technology of CRISPR currently shows a great level of application in the pharmaceutical sector. This post focuses on the mechanism of CRISPR inhibition and it's application in the field of molecular medicine.  CRISPR Inhibition CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) are the type of sequences of DNA which are generally found in prokaryotic living organisms. The CRISPR technology acts as an effective method to genetically modify the sequence of DNA which could result in the significant changes in the normal functioning of a gene. 




The Cas9 is a type of enzyme whose major function is to cleave the viral DNA molecules which could harm the bacterial cells. Therefore, they act as an immunological agent in order to protect bacteria from the invasion of the viruses. Naturally, the bacteria catch the snippets of viral DNA which could be used to create CRISPR array that is responsible for making the bacteria remember the virus. However, in the laboratory, in the…

All You Need to Know About Genetic Diversity

What is Genetic Diversity? Genetic diversity is the difference in the genetic makeup of each individual species, breed or population of a single variety of species. The genetic variation is caused due to the environmental conditions as well as mating patterns. The variation un the genes are responsible for the existence of variance in genetic species and a number of genetic disorders.
Image Source: Canva
The survival of the fittest conditions in the nature has resulted in evolution which in turn has resulted in genetic diversity by inducing certain traits which would otherwise have not existed in am organism. Genetic diversity is the reason why individuals present in the species shows variations.
Causes of Genetic Diversity Mating is the pairing of two organisms to reproduce new organisms. Mating is generally in between same population, species as well as interspecies in case of certain plants and animals. A migration of small bands of population may result in random mating amongst t…

Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare Sector

Artificial intelligence is the smart use of machines in order to mimic human activities. Since it is an advancing field and has shown a tremendous amount of benefits, its development for improving the technology used for the healthcare sector has shown a great level of interest by the researchers.

Image Source: Canva 
As this technology is gaining a lot of significance, its applications are increasing tremendously. However, as for today, the two major applications of AI in the healthcare sector include:
1. Data related application It is not a hidden fact that the data generated by the healthcare industry is huge. The future of healthcare industries holds more amount of data being generated. Managing these databases by using the current IT systems are becoming more challenging day-by-day. Thus, artificial technology which is one of the most advanced technology could find a great application in data management.

The techniques of artificial intelligence could also be used to track down …

GMOs: Positive and Negative Impacts

The term GMO is quite common and is gaining significance in a variety of food products. GMO which stands for Genetically Modified Organisms has been a subject of debate ever since it’s discovery among various scientific communities as to whether they are actually advantageous or not. The most common applications GM products are in the food and pharmaceutical industries. However, GMOs can also be used in the environment for its protection and monitoring. Before getting into the impacts of GMOs in various fields it is quite essential to be clear with the concept of GMOs.
What are GMOs? GMOs are basically organisms that are genetically engineered to include a particular trait of another organism or remove certain traits. So basically it is the manipulation of living organisms at the molecular level which is done by using recombinant DNA technology. A gene from one organism is transferred to another one through the use of suitable vectors. The GMO products that find their uses every day …

Microbial Sterilization

Microbial Sterilization is the process of removal or deactivation of microorganisms by using a variety of methodologies. The type of methods used in sterilization is broadly classified based on their mechanism of action into physical sterilization, chemical sterilization as well as radiation sterilization.

No matter which technique of sterilization is used, the outcome should prove to be deleterious for the target microbes in order to provide a pure condition. However, when exposed to a particular sterilization method, microorganisms do not get killed immediately. The sterilization treatment causes a constant decline in the population of microbes at certain intervals if time. In this post, we will study how effective each of these methodologies is as well as their applications.
1. Physical methods It utilizes the principle of subjecting microbes under extreme conditions of temperature as well as radiation in order to cause their lysis or deactivation.
Heat treatment Microbes tend to …

Environmental Biotechnology

Environmental biotechnology is the application of various techniques of biology in order to conserve environment. An environment has always played an essential role in shaping up of an individual whether it is physical or mental health. Thus, it's protection and maintainance is a mandatory duty of every individual. The application of biotechnology in environment has led to the development of environmental biosensors as well as biological waste treatment techniques. It has always tried to provide essential methodologies to improve the quality of an environment.


The application of biotechnology are most prominently in environmental monitoring and waste treatment which are increasing tremendously. Living organisms are manipulated to offer a large range of methodologies that can help in the protection of environment.

Environmental monitoring It includes the set of methodologies that detects alterations in the parameters of environment which in turn indicates the level of pollutants i…

Future Food Products of Biotechnology

The evolution of biotech products for the well being and satisfaction of humans is ever increasing. Biotechnology has always focused on developing the existing products into more prevailing versions which were not existing before. In this post we will discuss about the recent products developed in biotech industry by using various methodologies. One would be able to see these biotechnology products in market in the next 5-15 years with the help of various scale up strategies of industrial biotechnology.  The following are the list of some magical products turned into reality which are related to biotechnology that you can see in the near future.

1. Lactose free dairy products Are you lactose intolerant but love dairy products like cheese, yoghurt, milk? Lactose intolerance is basically the condition in which there is a disability of the digestive system in breaking down the sugar lactose into glucose and galactose. According to the National Institute of Health, around 65% of human po…

Types of Soil Bioremediation

The bioremediation process of treating wastes by using living organisms which include various microbes but most commonly bacteria which includes Pseudomonas putida, nitrifying as well as denitrifying bacteria, etc. The target waste can consist of organic as well as inorganic matter. The oil spills, volatile organic compounds, etc can be remediated by using suitable microorganisms. Bioremediation can be used to treat contaminated soil, wastewater as well as polluted air.
Types of bioremediation The knowledge about the types of bioremediation is quite essential to be known. If bioremediation is performed in a soil media then it is called soil bioremediation which is the most common one whereas when it is carried out in an air or water media then it is called air or water bioremediation.

The types of soil bioremediation are classified based on the soil environment in which microbes perform the process of remediation, the following are the types:

1. In situ bioremediation In situ bioreme…